Ten Most Amazing Archaeological Discoveries of 2013

Amazing discoveries 2013

This year has seen some incredible discoveries in the field of archaeology – from ancient myths proven true, to evidence of ancient technology, and findings that have solved enduring mysteries, such as the death of Tutankhamen.  Here we present what we believe are the top ten archaeological discoveries of 2013, excluding those relating to human origins which will be announced tomorrow.

10. Complete Remains of 2,500-Year-Old Chariot and Two Horses Found in Bulgaria.

9. Archaeologists Discover the Guardians of the ‘Gates of Hell.’

8. Ancient Philosophical Writings Found Hidden Beneath Medieval Text.

7. Archaeologists May Have Found the Tomb of the ‘God King.’

6. Amazing Discovery Reveals How China’s Forbidden City was Built.

5. Extensive Ancient Underground Network Discovered Across Europe.

4. 1,600-Year-Old Goblet Shows Romans Used Nanotechnology.

3. Laser Technology Revealed Surprising New Features of Angkor.

2. Incredible Discovery Reveals Birthplace of Buddha.

1. Mystery of King Tutankhamen’s Death Solved After More than 3,000 Years.

– Read the full story at:  Ancient Origins

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Legendary sea monsters of the past may not be myth after all.

kraken1

Originally Posted on Ancient Origins

By April Holloway

According to Scandinavian mythology, the Kraken was a giant sea creature (said to be 1 mile long) believed to eat whales and devour entire ships, and generally described as being similar to an octopus or squid. It was first mentioned in the 13th century Icelandic saga, Örvar-Oddr. Now researchers have found a fossil which they believe relates to this so-called mythical creature.

Two years ago, researchers discovered the remains of a marine lizard which contained a strange pattern believed to have been caused by a Kraken-style octopus. While this conclusion was largely criticized, Professor McMenamin, a palaeontologist at Mount Holyoke College in Massachusetts has cited new fossil discoveries which support the initial hypothesis that a giant octopus or squid once dominated the oceans.

The initial discovery in 2011 consisted of a strange arrangement of vertebrae of a sea reptile called ichthyosaur that lived around 200 to 250 million years ago found in Berlin-Ichthyosaur State Park in Nevada. Professor McMenamin believes that the way the bones were arranged could not have occurred naturally and appears to have been the result of an attack by a much larger predator. If it was done by a Kraken-type squid, it would have needed to be up to 30 meters long –today’s largest giant octopus species are rarely larger than a human being.

The latest finding is believed to be part of the beak of a giant ancient octopus- or squid-type creature, as well as more bones arranged in unusual patterns and shapes which contain sucker markings.  Next to the remains of the ichthyosaur was a ‘debris pile’ of scattered bones that were no longer in their correct order within the skeleton.

According to Professor McMenamin, the arrangement of the bones and the positioning of the sucker markings suggest that the reptile was drowned or had its neck snapped. It was then carried away from where it was killed, probably into the Kraken’s lair and dumped, leading to the pile of remains which were found. While some scientists remain skeptical of the theory, it is certainly deserving of further research.

Ancient American Magazine – Archeology of the Americas Before Columbus.

Issue #100 now available – Eastern Mound Builders and the Hopewell – 4 page fold-out centerfold images

Geometric Earthworks of Chillicothe, Ohio

Geophysical Investigations of the Hopewell Earthworks

Discovery of McGruer’s Gods

New Evidence: Poverty Point was Circular

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Ancient secrets uncovered

A STUNNING archaeological discovery at Brighton could change scientific understanding of human occupation.

From: http://www.themercury.com.au/ By: DAMIEN BROWN

Chief archaeologist on the Brighton bypass project Rob Paton next to some test holes with fellow archaeologists Kathryn Rogers and Aaron Everett.

Chief archaeologist on the Brighton bypass project Rob Paton next to some test holes with fellow archaeologists Kathryn Rogers and Aaron Everett.

The discovery of artifacts that could be among the oldes  in the world has prompted the State Government to consider adding a multi-million-dollar bridge to its Brighton bypass plans.

In a new development set to rock the scientific world, the artefacts found in the path of the proposed bypass could be twice as old as previously thought.

The discovery of the remains, that preliminary estimates show could be at least 40,000 years old, would give the scientific world a unique glimpse of a previously unknown period of human occupation this far south on the planet.

The remains found in the contentious Jordan River valley section of the $176 million bypass have forced the Department of Infrastructure, Energy and Resources back to the drawing board this week.

Plans have been redrawn to include a 70m elevated bridge span over the site, costing an extra $10 million to $15 million.

With a University of Melbourne report expected to be finalised this week, principal archaeologist Rob Paton has estimated the findings of stone tools and evidence of everyday life could be anywhere up to 40,000 years old. The previous estimate was about 18,000.

It has been estimated that anywhere up to three million artefacts could be uncovered in the 600m by 60m riverbank area.

The estimate places settlement of the area at about the time of Mungo Man, a discovery that challenged human evolutionary theory.

In 1974, scientists discovered the skeletal remains of a man near Lake Mungo in south-western NSW dated about 40,000 years old.

Previously, the oldest researched human DNA came from a Croatian Neanderthal who died about 28,000 years ago.

Mungo Man brought about a complete rethink on mainstream evolutionary theory, referred to as the “Out of Africa” theory that all humans were descended from modern homo sapiens who left Africa about 100,000 years ago.

“If the ages for the site prove to be correct, this is the oldest site in Tasmania and among the oldest in Australia,” Mr Paton told the Mercury.

“Moreover, it would be the oldest most southern site on the planet, giving us a glimpse into an unknown part of world history and the spread of homo sapiens across the Earth.

“Our readings of the sediments also seem to be telling us that the part of the levee that contains the archaeological material is mostly undisturbed.

“This is almost unheard of from an open-air site, anywhere in the world.

“Most events of this kind come from cave deposits that often reflect only a very small and specialized part of the lives of people.

“Our work so far certainly indicates this is a scientifically important and exciting site. It will be an important place for interpreting the deep history of Tasmania, but also of archaeology on a worldwide scale.”

Department secretary Norm McIlfatrick has said the Government will do all it can to protect the significant site.

“If it is 28,000 years old or 40,000 years old, it doesn’t matter, this is a significant find and we will be protecting it,” Mr McIlfatrick said.

“We believe we can take a management plan to Environment Minister Michelle O’Byrne that protects this levee and allows this important bypass to go ahead.

“We are not going to be draconian here, we want to see this protected.”

The new management plan that will include the extended bridge span is also expected to include a covenant to protect and conserve the area.

To test the potential importance of the site, Mr Paton was engaged as archaeological director to work alongside heritage officers Aaron Everett, Bob Hughes and Leigh Maynard, geomorphologist Dr Tim Stone and archaeologist Cornelia de Rochefort.

The method used to date the river levee site is known as optically stimulated luminescence, OSL.

Mr Paton said while this was a complex form of dating, it told researchers the last time sunlight fell on the sandy deposits before they were covered, encasing the stone artifacts.